In the Driver's Seat

Young adults are consistently over-represented among those injured or killed in traffic accidents. Risky driving behaviours such as speeding, driving when fatigued, and driving under the influence of alcohol are often implicated in these crashes.

 In an effort to shed light on these road safety problems, considerable research has been devoted to examining the driving patterns and behaviours of this age group, as well as the situational, structural and legal factors that influence their driving behaviour.

However, much less is known about the earlier circumstances or factors in young drivers’ lives that may have influenced their current driving behaviour. This report presents findings from the ATP Young Drivers Study – a collaboration between the Australian Institute of Family Studies, the Royal Automobile Club of Victoria (RACV), and the Transport Accident Commission (TAC) of Victoria.

BRAKE and Lockyer Valley Regional Council

We welcome Laidley State High School to the BRAKE family and it is fantastic that the school is helping their young people and community in relation to road safety.  Such a proactive approach is so commendable and we look forward to working with them and their community.

BRAKE - A Research Based Solution

In Australia, research has identified that novice drivers represent about 12% of licensed drivers, yet represent close to 30% of fatality crashes (double).  Research has also shown that the first six months after obtaining a license is the most dangerous period

On the relationship of crash risk and driver hours of service

Changes in the U.S. hours of service policy in January 2004 argue for an assessment of the safety implications of the new policy. Time-dependent logistic regression and case-control sampling are applied to derive a sample of 231 crashes and 462 non-crashes during 2004 for three national-scale trucking companies.

Brake Students Earn 1 QCE Point

The Brake Driver Awareness Course has been formally recognised by the Queensland Studies Authority through awarding students one QCE point when they successfully complete the eight part Brake course.

Last year more than 500 students boosted their academic entry scores.  Brake now has over 50 schools participating in the innovative Driver Education courses.

BRAKE and Rockhampton Regional Council

Glenmore State High School is the first school in the area to take up BRAKE and we are hopeful of sponsorship in the area allowing us to offer the program to further schools.

Trevor Hendy Portrait by Andrew Grech Up For Auction

Today saw the unveiling of a magnificent painting of Gold Coast iconic sportsman, Trevor Hendy, who was undefeated for 4 years straight as Australia’s premier ironman.

A Labour Of Love

FROM 2005 through to today, BRAKE has evolved from a seed of an idea to an organization that has reached 15,000 teenagers at 50 schools and organizations about driver education and road safety.

Encouraging the Purchase of Safer Vehicles

 Road safety research shows that there could be substantial road safety benefits arising from encouraging the purchase of safer vehicles. The Swedish insurance organisation Folksam has estimated that at least 30% of fatal and serious injuries could be avoided if the average crashworthiness of the fleet was raised to that of the best vehicles currently available.

Fleet and private vehicle buyers need to be targeted in such strategies. To assist in the development of effective strategies three strands of research have been conducted:

1. An analysis of vehicle safety features that are available or are under development. A substantial literature search was conducted in order to establish, where possible, the likely benefits and costs of these features.

2. An analysis of the availability of safety features for new vehicles, the degree to which manufacturers and motor dealers go to promote these features and the impediments to consumers taking up these safety features.

3. An analysis of safety features that are likely to be available for, and the crashworthiness of, the current West Australian light vehicle fleet and the possible future trends.

This report outlines the findings of that research and identifies action that could be taken to address key issues.

BRAKE Talks to the Jimboomba Quota and Rotary Clubs

Jimboomba's Quota and Rotary club members fell silent at the combined dinner last week as they heard about the number of young drivers being injured and killed on our roads.

Driver Aggression

This report addressed the topic aggression in driving and related areas of research. A range of different subject areas are reviewed including theories of aggression, factors contributing to aggressive driving behaviour, the measurement of aggression, the characteristics of driver groups at high risk of crash involvement, strategies for combating aggression in driving and the identification of a number of research issues.

BRAKE and The Scenic Rim Regional Council

The former Beaudesert Shire Council, the majority of which was amalgamated into the Scenic Rim Regional Council, gave a substantial financial grant, and resources, to BRAKE in November 2006 to ensure BRAKE was established within the former Beaudesert Shire.

The Psychology of Road Rage

The concept of “road rage” is relatively new.1 It was only in the 1990s that the media began to focus on road rage incidents, leading some commentators to argue that road rage is a media invention and not a real phenomenon.

Other researchers dispute this, however, arguing that the term “road rage” is simply a new label for criminal, aggressive or anti‐social behaviour on the road that is a widely recognised problem and the cause of many accidents.

Road rage at its most serious can lead to physical attacks, but it is more often manifested in aggressive driving or verbal abuse. Surveys suggest that most drivers have experienced some form of road rage, as victim or as perpetrator.

Redcliffe State High School

Thanks again for offering this program – our teachers and students absolutely love it!

Fear-based information campaigns

Fear appeals confront people in a rather hard and often shocking way with the negative consequences of risky behaviour and also show how to change undesirable behaviour.Fear-based information, also called fear appeals, confronts people with the negative consequences of risky behaviour by capitalizing on their fears.

Rural Road Safety

The aim of this report was to provide a basis for future policy and program development by RACV that specifically relates to rural roads and road users. The report provides a detailed overview of road trauma occurring on rural Victorian roads from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2001.

Comparisons with road trauma in the metropolitan area have not been made and trends have not been presented. Estimation of crash and injury risks on a population or distance travelled basis was beyond the scope of this project.
 

BRAKE - An Invaluable Resource On Road Safety

The BRAKE site is jam packed with information including a long list of research papers on everything from Australian crash statistics to driver behaviour, driver training and road safety, teen driver risks and novice driver safety research.

In-Car Distractions and Their Impact on Driving Activities

This report documents the findings from an international research project that investigated in-car distractions and how they occur and impact driving activities.

The project has been funded by the Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government and completed in collaboration with a researcher in Finland and cooperation with a researcher in the UK. The study is timely.

Recently there has been an increased public and scholarly interest in distracted driving in Australia as well as more globally. The main objective and innovation of this research project has been to use both quantitative and qualitative methods for improving the understanding of the nature of in-car distractions, including the documentation of their diversity, characteristics, and development.

Specifically, this project aims to introduce a new qualitative research methodology for driving safety research and thereby to enrich research on driving distractions by introducing new data, new analyses and new findings. Plenty of important research on driving distractions exists already.

A distraction is an element of the driving situation which demonstrably influences the driver’s attention to, and participation in relevant driving activities, and does not contribute to relevant driving activities.

Young Adults' Driving Behaviour

This report of the ATP Young Drivers Study is the product of a collaborative partnership between the Australian Institute of Family Studies, the Royal Automobile Club of Victoria (RACV) and the Transport Accident Commission (TAC) of Victoria.

The collaboration commenced in 2002 when the RACV and TAC commissioned the Institute to collect and analyse data concerning the nature and development of driving behaviour among a large group of Victorian young adults (aged 19-20 years) who were participating in the Australian Temperament Project (ATP).

Road Deaths Australia 2008 Statistical Summary

This annual publication presents a statistical summary of Australian fatal road crashes and road deaths. The current issue presents fatal crash data for 2008 and makes comparisons with earlier years.

The Founder of BRAKE

Knocking on the doors of distraught parents to tell their child has just died in a car crash was part of the job. Rob Duncan believed there had to be a better way to train young drivers so he founded the BRAKE Driver Awareness Program in 2006.

BRAKE Case Studies

BRAKE has been successfully implemented in a number of Queensland council regions over the past three years.  The implementation of BRAKE in a community follows a fairly standard pattern.

The Influence of Fear Arousal and Perceived Efficacy on the Acceptance and Rejection of Road Safety Advertising Messages

This paper examines the effects of fear arousal and perceived efficacy on the acceptance and rejection of road safety advertising messages that are typical in Australia and New Zealand.

Effective Driver Training

We teach driver behaviour, passenger responsibility, resisting peer pressure, avoiding distraction, hazard perception, risk analysis, crash re-enactment and analysis of crash causes.

The Effectiveness of Driver Training As a Road Safety Measure

 The effectiveness of driver training as a road safety measure is a controversial issue within the professional and public arena. The worth of driver training for car drivers as a means of improving driver behaviour and reducing road crash involvement is continually debated in Australia and overseas.

BRAKE and Brisbane City Council

In the Brisbane City Council area a number of schools have come on board with BRAKE. The first school was Sunnybank SHS in 2009 and in 2010, Sunnybank SHS, Aspley SHS, Corinda SHS and Holland Park SHS.

Road Safety Education and Training from a Public Health Perspective

From a public health perspective, road safety education and training seem to be largely ineffective. There is little scientific evidence to suggest that they contribute to reduced risk, injury or fatality among those targeted. Some programs do influence road user behaviour and reduce the crash risk and/or injury of road users but these appear to be in the minority.

Education and training programs may also do more harm than good by increasing exposureto- risk among some road users. They also represent a diversion of funds, resources and attention away from betterbased and more effective countermeasures.

Assessing and influencing driver attitudes in the United Kingdom

Accident and injury rates amongst car drivers have been consistently reducing in the United Kingdom since 1994. Indeed, the UK now has one of the lowest accident rates in the world. However, it is unclear to what extent this improvement is due to advances in car and road design and changes in legislation rather than improvements in driver behaviours.

European Road Safety Observatory Novice Drivers

Traffic crashes are the single greatest killer of 15 to 24 year olds in OECD countries, and, although data is not always available, the situation appears to be no better in other, non-OECD countries. This web text focuses on young and novice drivers in the age group of 18-24, addressing the magnitude and nature of the problem, and it discusses effective countermeasures.

Flexible Barrier Systems Along High-Speed Roads

 

This report addresses the issue of run-off-road crashes in Victoria, through the large-scale use of flexible barriers along high-speed roads. Run-off-road crashes contribute up to four in ten fatalities in Victoria and over half of all fatalities on rural roads.

Although other countermeasures such as clear zones and shoulder sealing have had some effect in addressing this major road safety issue, flexible barriers are proving to be the most effective countermeasure, eradicating, almost completely, the risk of fatal injury resulting from vehicles running off the road.

The report describes Swedish experience with flexible barriers, detailing the road safety concerns pertinent to Sweden, the different design configurations used to adapt the barriers to various road cross-sections, and its great success in reducing single-vehicle crashes as a result of large-scale use of flexible barriers.

 

Removal or Disablement of Airbags

Airbags (also called supplementary restraint systems or SRS) are fitted to motor vehicles to prevent or reduce injury to a vehicle’s occupants in an accident. In the event of an accident, sensors trigger the airbag/s which inflate instantaneously to protect occupants from impact with the interior of the vehicle.

Airbags are a major advance in protecting people from death or injury in road crashes— possibly the most important advance in secondary safety since the introduction of seat belts. Because of this Transport SA strongly advises against the removal of airbags. Reasons for Disablement or Removal of Airbags

In the driver’s seat

Young adults are consistently over-represented among those injured or killed in traffic accidents. Risky driving behaviours such as speeding, driving when fatigued, and driving under the influence of alcohol are often implicated in these crashes. In an effort to shed light on these road safety problems, considerable research has been devoted to examining the driving patterns and behaviours of this age group, as well as the situational, structural and legal factors that influence their driving behaviour.

Who Are We Scaring With High Fear Road Safety Advertising Campaigns?

Traffic accidents have long been among the leading causes of deaths in industrial societies (Peltzman, 1975; Kenkel, 1993). Whether these traffic accidents are the result of drunk driving (commonly known as Driving Under Influence or DUI in America), speeding, or other unsafe driving behaviours, the injuries and fatalities that often result are devastating and can inflict tremendous costs on both the individuals involved and society.

 In 1994, there were 580 fatalities and 16,600 injuries resulting from traffic accidents in New Zealand (LTSA, 2001), and the corresponding annual social cost is estimated to be NZ$3 billion (LTSA, 1996). In an effort to reduce the road toll in New Zealand, the Land Transport Safety Authority (LTSA) initiated a Supplementary Road Safety Package (SRSP) in October 1995.

The State of Driver Education

 The AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety has sponsored a project to "reinvent" driver education into a form that reduces crashes by novice drivers. The research team reviewed the current driver education literature in order to identify novice driver needs, evaluate methods of instruction, and assess the effectiveness of driver education in influencing behaviour. The researchers then proposed performance objectives for driver education graduates and methods for achieving those objectives.

Staysafe Committee Report on World Health Day 2004

This report is a collation of papers given at a forum on road safety held in Sydney, New South Wales, on Wednesday 7 April 2004. The forum—one of numerous events held on that day around the globe—marked World Health Day. For the first time in the history of the World Health Organization, World Health Day was devoted to road safety. 

The slogan for the day was "Road Safety is No Accident". This slogan was adopted for the New South Wales event. The major launch of World Health Day 2004 was celebrated in Paris, France, and was hosted by President Jacques Chirac of France, who delivered a powerful keynote speech calling road traffic collisions an "evil which strikes at the modern world".

He stressed the need for political commitment to road safety at the highest level and called for action by all countries to address this crisis. The Secretary-General of the United Nations, Mr Kofi Annan, pledging his support to World Health Day and called on all countries to take heed of the growing toll of road traffic collisions and begin implementing preventive action.

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Child Safety Seats and Seat Beltsin Protecting Children from Injury

Motor vehicle crashes in the U.S. result in over 45,000 deaths and an estimated 2.4 million disabling injuries each year (NSC, 2006). Restraint systems such as seat belts and airbags have been shown to dramatically limit the injuries sustained in a crash (Kahane, 1986).

For young children, all states currently require the use of child safety seats, and the minimum age and weight requirements to graduate to seat belts has been increasing over time (Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, 2004). Since 2003, more than a dozen states raised these requirements. Two important drawbacks of child safety seats are their cost and difficulty of correct installation.

National Ambassador for BRAKE

Would your company or organization support an initiative that was capable of significantly decreasing the number of horrific crashes that affect so many of our precious young people and their families?

Safer Vehicle Choices for Older Adults

Previous research has identified that older people may not be well informed about vehicle safety issues and may not consider them a high priority when purchasing vehicles. These issues were explored in the project and recommendations have been made to guide older adults in the purchase of safe vehicles.

BRAKE and Gladstone Regional Council

BRAKE is pleased to be associated with Toolooa SHS. Their leadership and community spirit in offering BRAKE to their students, families and community is applauded.

A Survey on Overconfidence, Insurance and Self-Assessment Training Programs

As argued by Werner DeBondt and Richard H. Thaler (1995): " Perhaps the most robust finding in the psychology of judgement is that people are overconfident." This paper surveys part of the vast empirical and experimental literature on overconfidence.

Young Drivers

Road crashes are the single biggest killer of 15-24 year-olds in industrial countries. More than 8 500 young car drivers die in the 30 OECD countries each year.

Young drivers are not just a danger to themselves; they also pose a greater risk to their passengers and other road users.
Crash death rates for drivers under 25 are roughly double those of older drivers. Young men are particularly at risk, with death rates of up to three times those of young women.

In addition to the terrible human cost, such tragedies impose a heavy financial burden on societies – according to one study, the total cost of a single road death is around one million euros.

Buckling Up

Using seat belts is one of the most effective strategies available to the driving public for avoiding death and injury in a crash (Dinh-Zarret al. 2001, 48).

Today, however, nearly 35 years after the federal government required that all passenger cars be equipped with seat belts, approximately one-quarter of U.S. drivers and front-seat passengers are still observed not to be buckled up (Glassbrenner 2002, 1).

Nonusers tend to be involved in more crashes than belt users (Reinfurt et al. 1996, 215), and belt use is lower—about 40 percent for drivers—in severe crashes (O’Neill 2001).

Examination of Different Predictors of Different Risky Driving Behaviours in Young NSW Drivers

Road trauma is recognized as a serious problem both in Australia and internationally. Young drivers are over-represented in crashes among all classes of road user. A range of factors may potentially contribute to road crashes. Risky driving has been identified as an important contributor to road crashes, although its role is not comprehensively understood.

The focus of the present research will be on four risky driving-related behaviours: speeding, drink-driving, driving while fatigued, and not wearing seat belts. The successful manipulation of risky driving requires a good understanding of contributing factors.

However, until recently no research has directly examined the differences between risky driving behaviours, in terms of precipitating factors. Our preliminary research (Fernandes & Job, 2003; Fernandes, Job & Hatfield, 2004) indicated that different factors predict different risky driving behaviours.

Motivating behaviour change among young drivers: Recent findings on developmental issues and the role of parents

Young drivers are the most over-represented group in injury crash statistics, predominantly due to their inexperience; yet several factors that contribute to their over-representation fall under    volitional control. Over the past decade, there has been increasing research support for biologically-driven explanations of this greater vulnerability to crashes. Better understanding of developmental and crash risk factors by youth and their parents could improve engagement and compliance with behaviour change programs. Parental involvement has been found to have a powerful impact on youth risk-taking behaviour for a variety of youth risk activities.Parent initiatives associated with reduced driving risks include general parental monitoring and written agreements on driving-related restrictions. Recently, in-vehicle monitoring equipment has become available to parents, which might also support improved parental involvement if utilised in a supportive, authoritative manner. It is argued that implementation and evaluation of ‘best practice’ recommendations in these fields offers a promising direction to further reduce young driver road trauma.

The Effectiveness of Driver Training as a Road Safety Measure

There is continuing public and media debate in Australia and overseas about the worth of driver training for car drivers as a means of improving driver behaviour and reducing road crash involvement.

In view of this there is a need for road safety professionals , and the public at large, to be well informed about the merits and effectiveness of such training as a crash countermeasure.

This paper summarises an extensive review of the international literature on the effectiveness of driver training programs for learner drivers, young/recently licensed drivers and experienced drivers produced for the RACV Public Policy Group in mid 2001.

Overall, the paper concludes that driver training could not be considered an effective crash countermeasure. Other approaches such as increased supervision and graduated licensing for novice drivers and traffic law enforcement for all drivers are likely to make greater and more lasting contributions to road safety.

The History of BRAKE

If founder Rob Duncan has his way, BRAKE will continue to grow in the years ahead as generations of new drivers take to our roads. BRAKE evolved from a seed of an idea to an organization that has reached 15,000 teenagers at 50 schools and organizations, giving them the skills to reduce youth road crashes and trauma.

Simple Facts About Teenage Road Safety

Young people (under 25) are involved in proportionally more car crashes than any other age group. Recent findings in brain development indicate that the human brain may not be fully capable of recognising risks

BRAKE and The Ipswich City Council

 St Augustine's College has became and important member of BRAKE through Laura Collier, who not only facilitates BRAKE, but trains other teachers and provides invaluable feedback on BRAKE content, delivery and student engagement.

Teen Reactions to Anti-Drink Driving Fear Appeals

 

The use of a graphic imagery in road safety advertising has become commonplace. However, controversy surrounds the use of fear appeals and their ability to influence driver attitudes and behaviour.

In New Zealand, teenage drivers are an ‘at risk’ group with a high accident rate. Even though alcohol is often implicated in these accidents, drivers under 18 have not been specifically targeted by drink driving advertising. Little is known about how teenagers respond to drink driving messages.

 

BRAKE and Isaac Regional Council

The Mining Industry Road Safety Alliance (MIRSA) and the Queensland Minerals and Energy Academy have been significant partners through financial and resource assistance in providing BRAKE to the Isaac Regional Council community.

Priorities in Young and Novice Driver Research in Australasia and the Asia Pacific Region

Despite international advances in research and intervention, young and novice drivers continue to be overrepresented in road trauma. In 2008, the US Transportation Research Board’s Young Driver Subcommittee held an expert workshop to identify the research priorities to address this issue.

The focuswas from a high income country perspective; however, three-quarters of the world’s road fatalities occur in low and middle income countries, many situated in close proximity to Australia.

This paper summarises and extends the workshop findings to identify and include local priorities and there by promote a novice driver research agenda for the Australasian and Asia Pacific region.

Vehicle Age-Related Crashworthiness of the South Australian Passenger Fleet

In this report, the crashworthiness of passenger vehicles in South Australia is characterised. For this purpose crashworthiness is defined as the rate of serious and fatal crashes per crash of any severity.

The relationship between this rate and the ages of passenger vehicles is used to characterise and compare the crashworthiness of the South Australian registered passenger vehicle fleet and the fleets of other Australian jurisdictions.

The mean age of passenger vehicles registered in South Australia is around 11.2 years compared with 9.9 years for the entire Australian registered passenger vehicle fleet and 9.3 years for registered passenger vehicles of New South Wales.

Based on these mean vehicle ages, tow-away crashes in South Australia have a 3% over-representation of seriously injured or killed drivers compared with the national average (assuming a crashworthiness decline of 2.53% per year of vehicle age). Analysis of only those vehicles that crash confirm these estimates and suggest an over-representation of 3.5%. Young drivers appear to be doubly disadvantaged in that they have a higher rate of serious and fatal crashes for a given vehicle age, and they tend to crash vehicles that are much older than the vehicles crashed by those drivers who are over 25 years of age.

Despite this, the benefits of fleet renewal on average age-related crashworthiness are relatively modest and it may be more fruitful to encourage the safest new car fleet now so that road safety benefits can be realised in 10-15 years time. In the mean time, removal of impediments to younger drivers who would otherwise drive newer and safer cars could be considered.

BRAKE and The Central Highlands Regional Council

The Mining Industry Road Safety Alliance (MIRSA) and the Queensland Minerals and Energy Academy have been significant partners through financial and resource assistance in providing BRAKE to the Central Highlands Regional Council community.

Restrictions on Young Drivers Under the Transport Legislation and Another Act Amendment Act 2007 (QLD)

In February 2007, the Queensland Government passed the Transport Legislation and Another Act Amendment Act 2007 (Qld) to support the phasing in of new rules to apply to young learner and provisional drivers.

The first phase commences in July 2007. The Research Brief firstly considers trends and issues relating to young drivers on pages 2-4. It then briefly discusses two reports tabled by the Queensland Parliamentary Travelsafe Committee in December 2003 and a Queensland Government Discussion Paper on pages 4-6.

The Travelsafe Committee Reports, Reducing the road toll for young Queenslanders – is education enough? and Provisional Driver and Rider Licence Restrictions considered ways to reduce young driver crashes and made a number of recommendations.

The Queensland Government’s October 2005 ‘Queensland youth – on the road and in control’ Discussion Paper sought to engage the community in relation to proposals to improve young driver safety.

Coordinator Profile - Cathie Flint

BRAKE Coordinators - like Cathie Flint in the Central Highlands and Coalfields - are sponsored by local businesses and service clubs.

Predicting the Acceptance and Rejection of Emotion-based Anti-Speeding Messages

Limited evidence is available relating to the effectiveness of positive emotional appeals in road safety. Moreover, relative to measures of message acceptance, little is known about message rejection as an outcome measure of message effectiveness.

The effectiveness of a range of negative and positive emotional appeals addressing speeding were examined with drivers (N = 551).

Hierarchical regressions examined the extent that measures of drivers’ pre-existing attitudes and perceived involvement, as well asgender and age, predicted the acceptance and rejection of the appeals.

Browns Plains High School

We have found the program very simple to implement and I would like to commend Belinda and the BRAKE team on their organisation of the program.

Fatalism and Road Safety in Developing Countries

 

Road crashes are a significant problem in developing countries such as Pakistan. Attitudes are among the human factors which influence risky road use and receptiveness to interventions.

Fatalism is a set of attitudes known to be important in Pakistan and other developing countries, however it is rarely addressed in the road safety literature.

Two broad types of fatalism are “theological fatalism” and “empirical fatalism”, both of which are found in developed countries as well as in developing countries.

 

Trevor Hendy portrait painting by Andrew Grech up for Auction

Present today at the Mantra Resort and Spa in Kingscliff was Andrew Grech, an inspirational contemporary artist who was very happy to be donating his work to the charity BRAKE.

Reducing crashes and injuries among young drivers: what kind of prevention should we be focusing on?

Every year, drivers throughout the world are killed or injured in road traffic. Young drivers run a greater risk everywhere, and this problem is still largely unsolved. Better understanding of the underlying processes could, however, be a useful tool in preventive endeavours. To change a young driver’s goals behind driving and the context in which it is done, a variety of different methods of persuasion should be tested.

BRAKE Wins Innovation Award

The BRAKE Driver Awareness Program Distance Education Mode won the Innovation category at the 2009 Queensland Road Safety Awards.

Motivating Behaviour Change Among Young Drivers

Young drivers are the most over-represented group in injury crash statistics, predominantly due to their inexperience; yet several factors that contribute to their over-representation fall under volitional control.

Over the past decade, there has been increasing research support for biologically-driven explanations of this greater vulnerability to crashes.

Better understanding of developmental and crash risk factors by youth and their parents could improve engagement and compliance with behaviour change programs.

An On-Road Examination of Driver Errors at Intersections

A significant proportion of road trauma occurs at intersections. Understanding driver behaviour at intersections therefore has the potential to lead to significant injury reductions. This paper presents the findings of an on-road study investigating the nature of errors made by drivers at intersections.

To understand how the complexity of modern intersections shapes behaviour these are compared to the errors made mid-block, and the role of wider systems failures in intersection error causation is investigated.

Twenty-five participants drove a pre-determined route, incorporating 25 intersections, in an instrumented vehicle. Two in-vehicle observers recorded the errors made while a range of other data was collected, including verbal protocols, video, eye glance behaviour and vehicle data (speed, braking, lane tracking).

Testing of Rear Seat Strength in Cars

The ANEC Traffic Working Group tries to influence car safety standards from the consumer point of view. Over the years, the group has successfully pushed standards (often lowest common denominators to avoid trade barriers) to a higher level, generating higher levels of protection. 

Examples are the Frontal and Side Impact Regulations for passenger cars, the 03 revision of ECE 44 (Child Restraints) More than once test experiences of consumer organisations were used to support the consumer position in standardisation discussions.

This test tries to highlight shortcomings in current legislation concerning rear seat strength in cars. By testing different designs of current production models we hope to demonstrate that in the existing car fleet there are differences in performance and that more demanding requirements are needed and achievable.

Car ownership puts Queensland teens at high crash risk

A recent CARRS-Q survey suggests that three out of four young Queensland drivers own a vehicle within the first six months of receiving a Provisional licence, increasing their risk of being involved in a crash.

BRAKE and Logan City Council

Community course held in the Jimboomba Library was the inaugural course and many of the participants remain in contact with BRAKE today.  It has been implemented in Flagstone State Community College and Park Ridge State High School.

BRAKE Coordinator Profile

Cathie Flint supports BRAKE training in eleven schools, training the teachers in the way to teach driver training, presenting the BRAKE story to parents and also co-teaching the courses.

Local Driver Awareness Program On The Road To Success

The Gold Coast Blaze have teamed up with the BRAKE Driver Awareness Program to be involved in a new video which BRAKE will use throughout schools to help reduce the numbers of deaths and injury of young drivers.

Observing others behaviour and risk taking in decisions from experience

This paper examines how observing other people’s behaviour affects risk taking in repeated decision tasks. In Study 1, 100 participants performed experience-based decision tasks either alone or in pairs, with the two members being exposed to each others’ choices and outcomes.

Teenage Driver Fatalities by State

The numbers of 16- and 17-year-old driver deaths in passenger vehicles in the United States were slightly higher for the first six months of 2011 than in the first six months of 2010, based on preliminary data supplied by all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Deaths of 16-year-olds increased from 80 to 93 (16 percent).

Deaths of 17-year-olds increased from 110 to 118 (7 percent). Overall, 16-and-17-year-old drivers deaths increased from 190 to 211 (11 percent ). Twenty-three states had increases in deaths of 16- and 17-year-olds, 19 had decreases, and there was no change in 8 states plus the District of Columbia. Most of the changes were small.

Taxi Drivers and Road Safety

While recent years have seen a growing body of road safety research from the perspectives of both engineering and psychology, little research concerning taxi drivers has been reported. Taxi drivers are an important group for road safety research, both because of their role in modern transport systems, and due to controls inherent in the nature of the job which are not normally available in general road safety research. Unlike studies of the public, research on taxi drivers can make use of the fixed shift patterns, standard vehicle types, specific areas of driving and so on to limit the confounding factors in analysis of predictors of accidents. The current project utilised these controls to study taxi driver road safety.

 

 

Gold Coast Blaze NBL Join Forces With BRAKE

Two Gold Coast Blaze players, Chris Goulding and Greg Vanderjagt, will be the BRAKE Gold Coast Blaze Ambassadors and in their new role, help grow the message of road safety for under 25s.

Review of literature regarding national and international young driver training, licensing and regulatory systems

As is common in developed countries worldwide, in Australia, including Western Australia (WA), young novice drivers are substantially over-represented in road crash and injury statistics compared to more experienced drivers.

There are no Accidents

On a daily basis in the media we read or hear about people being killed or injured in accidents on our roads. 

But in every case the report is wrong.

Dual-task performance while driving a car: Age-related differences in critical situations

 Dual task conditions are especially demanding for older drivers. For example, while driving a car the driver has to process additional information (e.g. from the navigation system) and to react in an appropriate way.

Especially under demanding driving conditions impairments in reaction time have to be expected. One important factor is the cross-task compatibility, which is whether the information presented in the secondary task provides information, which is compatible or incompatible to the primary task.

First results indicate that effects of cross-task compatibility depend on the relevance of the driving situation and on the direction of the response that has to be performed in the primary task, and not so much on the position at which the information is presented.

Why Driving While Using Hands-Free Cell Phones Is Dangerous

In January 2004, at 4:00 p.m., in Grand Rapids, Michigan, a 20-year-old woman ran a red light while talking on a cell phone. The driver’s vehicle slammed into another vehicle crossing with the green light directly in front of her.

Learner driver experience project

  MUARC were commissioned to conduct a longitudinal study to assess two driver-related cognitive perceptual skills, hazard perception and situation awareness over three separate assessment sessions. The major focus was to investigate how these two skills develop as novices accumulated driving experience in the first 18 to 24 months of driving.

Overview of Motorcycle Crash Fatalities Involving Road Safety Barriers

There were 238 motorcycle-related fatalities in Australia during 2006, the highest number recorded in over 15 years. Similar increases are being noted in New Zealand where 38 motorcyclists were killed in 2006.

Previous research indicates around 8% of NSW motorcycle fatalities involve a roadside barrier. No studies have been done for all of Australia. Many myths still pervade concerning how injuries occur when a motorcycle strikes a roadside barrier.

The main reason is that there have been relatively few recent real world studies of such crashes where "in depth" detailed analysis of the factors leading up to the crash and the injury mechanisms have been thoroughly investigated.

Gold Coast BLAZE NBL Join BRAKE

It was a great ending to the year for the multi-award winning BRAKE Driver Awareness program when CEO of Gold Coast Blaze NBL, Mr Dave Claxton gave the thumbs up to joining forces with the BRAKE program.

Distracted Driving Among Newly Licensed Teen Drivers

Although distracted driving among teenagers is of great concern to traffic safety professionals and has received considerable media attention in recent years, rigorous research on this issue has been limited. Most of the research to date has concentrated on the risks associated with teen passengers and driver cell phone use.

Almost no research has examined the many other potential driving distractions often believed to be common and problematic among teenage drivers. In an ongoing study with the AAA Foundation, we collected a sizeable dataset of video data on teen drivers during the provisional licensing stage of GDL.

This in-vehicle data provided a unique opportunity to study distracted driver behaviors and potentially distracting conditions among young, beginning drivers. For the present analysis, we sampled and coded video data with the specific purpose of studying the nature and prevalence of distracted driving among teenagers. The study addressed a number of questions:

 Which distracted driver behaviors are most common among teenage drivers?
 Do males and females differ in how often they engage in distracted behaviors, or the kinds of distractions they experience?
 Do distracted driver behaviors vary based on the number of passengers and the characteristics of those passengers (e.g., teens vs. adults vs. young siblings)?
 Are distracted driver behaviors more common during certain times of day or week (e.g., weekday vs. weekend), and do these behaviors bear any relation to the amount of traffic or other characteristics of the driving environment?
 Do drivers who engage in distracted behaviors spend more time looking away from the roadway than drivers who are not distracted?
 Are distracted driver behaviors associated with serious incidents such as near collisions, or events involving hard braking or swerving?

Risk Propensity and Personality

The concept of risk propensity has been the subject of both theoretical and empirical investigation, but with little consensus about its conceptualization and measurement of risk propensity. This paper seeks to advance the field through data from a sample of 1,669 managers and professionals.

Understanding the Relationship between Cyclists and Drivers

The Victorian Government is committed to promoting and encouraging cycling as a legitimate and safe form of transport. However, there is a perception of increasing tension between drivers and cyclists, suggesting a souring relationship that may lead to unsafe behaviour on the roads and, potentially, reducing the rate of growth in cycling.

Community participation in traffic law enforcement

“Community participation is often the key to effective policing. The people who live and work in an area are best placed to identify the problems facing them and possible solutions to those problems” Department for International Development UK, 2000

 
The protection of life and property is the basic objective of policing, thus traffic safety should qualify as a key priority for police services. In many countries, more lives are lost on the road than through murder (see table); and road crashes are also a leading cause of destruction of motor vehicles, a rare possession and highly valued property in low-income countries (LICs). In reality, however, since few road crashes involve criminal intent, they have been traditionally viewed as ‘accidents’, and as a result, traffic safety is rarely a priority for the justice sector. Traffic safety can be seen to have become a priority in many roadside villages and urban communities in LICs, where, unable to escape the threat from traffic, residents have constructed illegal speed humps. In these situations, it should be possible for both the incidence and the impacts of road crashes to be reduced through improved collaboration between the police and the community.
                     Road Death  vs Murder

 
Year
Road Death
Murder
Delhi
2002
1696
511
Karnataka
2002
6366
1627
UK
2000
409
761
London
2001
299
171
Bangladesh
2000
3058
3386
Dhaka
2000
301
325

 

Active Transport Among Youth

The health benefits of physical activity during childhood are now well established and include reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, higher bone mineral density and favourable psychosocial health.

 For young people, active transport, that is walking or cycling to local destinations, is an important source of physical activity. However, it appears that parents may restrict these activities due to safety concerns.

This study sought to inform interventions aimed at increasing walking and cycling among youth by gaining an understanding of how levels of active transport vary between children and adolescents, and what safety-related aspects of the local road environment are associated with active transport.

The Role of Driver Distraction in Traffic Crashes

Driver inattention is a major contributor to highway crashes. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration estimates that at least 25% of police-reported crashes involve some form of driver inattention.

Teen Driving

The motor-vehicle crash risk of novice teen drivers is unacceptably high. This article examines the historical trends in fatal crash rates for male and female teen drivers as compared to adult drivers by both population and person-miles driven.

Motivating Behaviour Change Among Young Drivers

Young drivers are the most over-represented group in injury crash statistics, predominantly due to their inexperience; yet several factors that contribute to their over-representation fall under volitional control.

Over the past decade, there has been increasing research support for biologically-driven explanations of this greater vulnerability to crashes.

Motor-Vehicle Crashes and Factors That Contribute

The safety of teen drivers has too often been neglected in books and publications on adolescent health, even though motor-vehicle crashes are the greatest single public health threat to teens in many countries, including the U.S.

When Two Motivations Race

Time-saving bias - people’s biased judgments in estimating the time saved when increasing speed - has been found to strongly impact driving speed choices.

However, this bias may be relevant only when the driver’s motivation for increasing speed is to arrive sooner. If, on the other hand, the driver is motivated by the desire to experience thrill and sensation, a driver’s level of sensation-seeking might better explain choices of speed.

In this study, participants were asked to estimate the journey time when increasing speed and to estimate the speed required to arrive on time. They also indicated the speed they would personally choose in such a situation.

Effects of Obesity on Seat Belt Fit

Obesity has been shown to increase the risk of some types of injury in crashes. One hypothesis is that obesity adversely effects belt fit by changing the routing of the belt relative to the underlying skeletal structures.

To evaluate this hypothesis, belt fit was measured in a laboratory study of 54 men and women, 48 percent of whom were obese, with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 kg/m2 or greater.

Test conditions included a wide range of upper and lower belt anchorage locations and ranges of seat height, seat cushion angle, and seat back angle spanning a large fraction of current vehicle front and rear seats. In some conditions, foot position was restricted to simulate the typical situation in the second row of a small sedan.

Bendigo Community Bank Provides $40,000 to Support Brake in Logan

At a recent presentation ceremony, Colin Nelson, Chairman of the Logan Community Bank Branch of Bendigo Bank confirmed that BRAKE had been awarded a grant of $40,000 dollars from the bank. Mr Nelson is a Tamborine Mountain resident.

Saint Augustine's College

In my 30 years as a teacher I have seen many attempts to help students become safer drivers. BRAKE is, without doubt, the best I have seen and deserves the support of all who would like to make an active contribution to all of us being safer drivers.

Primary Access to Vehicles Increases Risky Teen Driving Behaviors and Crashes

OBJECTIVE: The goal was to explore teen driver vehicle access and its association with risky driving behaviors and crashes.

METHODS: A nationally representative, school-based survey of 2167 ninth-, 10th-, and 11th-graders examined patterns of vehicle access (primary access [ie, the teen is the main driver of the vehicle] versus shared access) and associated driving exposure, risky driving behaviors, and sociodemographic factors.

RESULTS: Seventy percent of drivers reported having primary access to vehicles. They were more likely to be white, to be in 11th grade, to attend schools with higher socioeconomic levels, to have mostly A/B grades, to have a job, to drive a pickup truck, and to drive more hours per week but were not more or less likely to consume alcohol or to wear seat belts while driving.

Compared with drivers with shared access, drivers with primary access reported more than twice the crash risk (risk ratio [RR]: 2.05 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.41–2.99]) and higher likelihoods of using cellular telephones while driving (RR: 1.23 [95% CI: 1.12–1.35]) and speeding10 mph above the posted limit (RR: 1.24 [95% CI: 1.11–1.40]).

CURRICULUM, DRIVER EDUCATION AND DRIVER TESTING

In the last ten years a couple of comparative studies have been conducted in order to describe and compare the driver education systems of different countries (Lynam & Twisk, 1995; Siegrist, 1999). These studies have also made attempts to evaluate the test-takers’ performance in terms of their accident-rate after the education.

Teen Reactions to Anti-Drink Driving Fear Appeals

The use of a graphic imagery in road safety advertising has become commonplace. However, controversy surrounds the use of fear appeals and their ability to influence driver attitudes and behaviour.

 In New Zealand, teenage drivers are an ‘at risk’ group with a high accident rate. Even though alcohol is often implicated in these accidents, drivers under 18 have not been specifically targeted by drink driving advertising. Little is known about how teenagers respond to drink driving messages.

This paper attempts to address this gap by investigating the relationships between social or physical threats and adolescents’ drink driving attitudes and behaviours, and the relationships between the adolescent trait of ‘sensation seeking’ and responses to drink driving communications.

The findings indicate that the use of a social threat is no more effective than a physical threat in drink driving communications and that the ‘sensation seeking’ trait is linked to drink driving attitudes and behaviour.

DRIVER AGGRESSION: The Role of Personality, Social Characteristics, Risk and Motivation

This report addressed the topic aggression in driving and related areas of research. A range of  different subject areas are reviewed including theories of aggression, factors contributing to aggressive driving behaviour, the measurement of aggression, the characteristics of driver  groups at high risk of crash involvement, strategies for combating aggression in driving and  the identification of a number of research issues. 

The challenge in NSW

Every week, 11 of our friends, neighbours, family members or workmates start a journey that they never complete. Every week, more than 500 people suffer injury on the way to or from work, home, visiting friends, going shopping,doing what they expect to be able to do safely.

BRAKE and Sunshine Coast Regional Council

Beerwah are the first school in the area to offer BRAKE to their students and families and we hope that sponsorship can be obtained from the community to allow further Sunshine Coast regional Council area secondary schools to offer BRAKE to their school communities.

Caboolture State High School

Thank you for all your support, we have really enjoyed delivering this valuable program to our senior students and hope to continue to do so next year.

Thank you for putting together a really wonderful program.

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Saint Augustine's College

In my 30 years as a teacher I have seen many attempts to help students become safer drivers. BRAKE is, without doubt, the best I have seen and deserves the support of all who would like to make an active contribution to all of us being safer drivers.

Browns Plains High School

We have found the program very simple to implement and I would like to commend Belinda and the BRAKE team on their organisation of the program.

Redcliffe State High School

Thanks again for offering this program – our teachers and students absolutely love it!